and Bibliography


Screening tests

Diagnostic tests


  • Groundbreaking' Trial Will Test Cancer-Sniffing Dogs. HuffPost. 2015-09-07, Langley, Liz (19 March 2016).
  • How Dogs Can Sniff Out Diabetes and Cancer. National Geographic News. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  • These Dogs Are Using Their Noses to Sniff Out Cancer. NBC News.
  • Saul, Heather (3 August 2016). Shannen Doherty says her dog detected her cancer. The Independent. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  • Langley, Liz (19 March 2016). How Dogs Can Sniff Out Diabetes and Cancer. National Geographic News. Retrieved 18 December 2016.


Testing and Diagnostics using Urine

  1. University of Alberta, Science Daily, September 5, 2013, Human Urine Metabolome: What Scientists can see in your urine.
  2. Haleem J. Issaq,* Ofer Nativ, Timothy Waybright, Brian Luke, Timothy D. Veenstra, Elias J. Issaq, Alexander Kravstov and Michael Mullerad,” Detection of Bladder Cancer in Human Urine by Metabolomic Profiling Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry”, From the Laboratory of Proteomics and Analytical Technologies (HJ[, TW, TDV) and Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (BL), SAIC Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, and Department of Urology, Bnai-Zion Medical Center (ON, EJI, AK, MM), Haifa, Israel, The Journal of Urology, Vol 179, 2422-2426, June 2008
  3. Jondavid Klipp, “FDA Lowers The Bar For AI Software Algorithms”, Laboratory Economics, February 2023, page 5
  4. Thomas Remer, Gabriela Montenegro-Bethancourt, Lijie Shi, Clinical Biochemistry, Volume 47, issue 18, December 2014, pages 307-311, Long-term Urine Biobanking: Storage stability of clinical chemical parameters under moderate freezing conditions without use of preservatives
  5. Wiktoria Struck, Malgorzata Waszczuk-Jankowska, Roman Kaliszan, Michal J. Markuszewski, “The state-of-the-art determination of urinary nucleosides using chromatographic techniques "hyphenated" with advanced bioinformatic methods”, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry ,27 February 2011, Special issue “Biomarkers” with Guest Editors Boguslaw Buszewski and Jochen Schubert. Springer online (doi:I0.1007/s00216-0ll-4789-6)
  6. Jing Fan, Jing Hong, Jun-Duo Hu,1 and Jin-Lian Chen, “Ion Chromatography Based Urine Amino Acid Profiling Applied for Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer”, 2012, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Gastroenterology Research and Practice Volume 2012, Article ID 474907, 8 pages doi:10. l 155/2012/474907
  7. "Urine Specimens." Labcorp, 1 Jan. 2023, Accessed 1 Apr. 2023.
  8. Liu KD, Siew ED, Reeves WB, Himmelfarb J, Go AS, Hsu C-y, et al. (2016) Storage Time and Urine Biomarker Levels in the ASSESS-AKI Study. PLoS ONE 11(10): e0164832.
  9. Gebreyes, Kulleni, et al. "Breaking the Cost Curve." Deloitte, 2 Sept. 2021, Accessed 1 Apr. 2023.
  10. Dr. Scott Tomlins, MD, PhD, “New Urine Test for Prostate Cancer Available; Unlike PSA Test, is ultra-specific for Prostate Cancer.”, Prostate Cancer Foundation, 25 Sept. 2013
  11. Discovery of New Chemical Entities for Alzheimer's Disease Tauopathy, 1R43AG053137-01A1 NIH/NIA phase I SBIR, 09/01/2016-08/31/2018
  12. A Quantum Similarity Approach for Discovery of Anti-Trypanosome Lead Drugs, 1R43AI114078-01 NIH/NIAID phase I SBIR, 05/15/2014-04/30/2016
  13. Discovery of Novel Anti-psychotics through Quantum Similarity 1R43MH101892-01, NIH/NIMH, 09/01/2013-07/31/2015
  14. A Quantum Physics Search for Liver-Stage Antimalarials, Grand Challenges Explorations Grant, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2012
  15. Identification of Nrf2 Activators Using an In Silico Modeling Platform, Followed by Evaluation of These Compounds in an Alpha-Synuclein Model of PD, MJFF Research Grant, Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research, 2011
  16. Wittmann BM, Stirdivant SM, Mitchell MW, Wulff JE, McDunn JE, Li Z, et al. (2014) Bladder Cancer Biomarker Discovery Using Global Metabolomic Profiling of Urine. PLoS ONE 9(12): e115870. 
  17. David J. Sullivan, Yi Liu, Bryan T. Mott, Nikola Kaludov and Martin N. Martinov. Discovery of Novel Liver-Stage Antimalarials Through Quantum Similarity, PLoS ONE, May 7, 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125593 
  18. Sarah S. Dinges, Annika Hohm, Lindsey A. Vandergrift, Johannes Nowak, Piet Habbel, Igor A. Kaltashov & Leo L. Cheng, “Cancer metabolomic markers in urine: evidence, techniques and recommendations”, Nature, Nature Reviews Urology, 15 May 2019, Vol 16, pages 339–362 
  19. T.P. Williamson, S.Amirahmadi, G.Joshi, N.K.Kaludov, M.N.Martinov, D.A.Johnson and J.A.Johnson Discovery of Potent, Novel Nrf2 Inducers via Quantum Modeling, Virtual Screening, and In Vitro Experimental Validation, Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 6:810, 2012 
  20. D.J. Sullivan Jr, N.Kaludov and M.N. Martinov Discovery of Potent, Novel, Non-toxic Anti- malarial Compounds via Quantum Modeling, Virtual Screening and In Vitro Experimental Validation. Malaria Journal, 10:274, 2011 
  21. Susan Horton, PhD, Kenneth A. Fleming, MBChB, Modupe Kuti, MBBS, Lai-Meng Looi, MBBS, Sanjay A. Pai, MD, Shahin Sayed, MBChB, MMed, and Michael L. Wilson, MD, “The Top 25 Laboratory Tests by Volume and Revenue in Five Different Countries”, American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 2019;151:446-451 
  22. Jondavid Klipp, “U.S. Clinical Laboratory Industry Forecast & Trends 2020 – 2022”, Laboratory Economics, 2021 
  23. Armstrong, J. A. Urinalysis in Western culture: a brief history. Kidney Int. 71, 384–387 (2007). 
  24. Nemoto, R., Kato, T., Harada, M., Shibata, K. & Kano, M. Mass screening for urinary tract cancer with urine cytology. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 104, 155–159 (1982). 
  25. Theodorescu, D. et al. Discovery and validation of urinary biomarkers for prostate cancer. Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2, 556–570 (2008). 
  26. Austdal M, Skråstad RB, Gundersen AS, Austgulen R, Iversen A-C, Bathen TF (2014) Metabolomic Biomarkers in Serum and Urine in Women with Preeclampsia. PLoS ONE 9(3): e91923.
  27. Bröker MEE, Lalmahomed ZS, Roest HP, van HuizenNA, Dekker LJM, Calame W, et al. (2013) CollagenPeptides inUrine: A New Promising Biomarker for the Detection of Colorectal Liver Metastases. PLoSONE 8(8): e70918.
  28. Imaizumi T,Nakatochi M, Akiyama S, Yamaguchi M, Kurosawa H, Hirayama Y, etal. (2016) UrinaryPodocalyxin as a Biomarker to Diagnose Membranous Nephropathy. PLoS ONE 11(9): e0163507.
  29. A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians,vol. 60, no.5, pp. 277–300, 2010.
  30. D. J. McConkey, S. Lee, W. Choi et al., “Molecular genetics of bladder cancer: emerging mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 429–440, 2010.
  31. M. S. Cookson, H. W. Herr, Z. F. Zhang, S. Soloway, P. C. Sogani, and W. R. Fair, “The treated natural history of high risk superficial bladder cancer: 15-year outcome,” Journal of Urology, vol. 158, no.1, pp. 62–67, 1997.
  32. M. S. Soloway, M. Sofer, and A. Vaidya, “Contemporary management of stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder,” Journal of Urology, vol. 167, no. 4, pp.1573–1583,2002.
  33. Mufti GR, Singh M. Value of random mucosal biopsies in the management of superficial bladder cancer. Eur. Urol. 22:289-93, 1992
  34. Kriegmair M., Baumgartner R, Lumper W, WaidelichR, Hofstetter A. Early clinical experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid for the photodynamic therapy of superficial bladder cancer. Br. J. Urol 155:105-9, 1996
  35. G. Bepler, M. Begum, and G. R. Simon, “Molecular analysis-based treatment strategies for non-small cell lung cancer,” Cancer Control, vol.15, no.2, pp.130–139, 2008.
  36. Breiman L. Heuristics of instability and stabilization in model selection. Ann Stat 1996;24:2350–83.
  37. Braga-NetoUM, Dougherty ER. Is cross-validation valid for small-sample microarray classification Bioinformatics 2004; 20:374–80.
  38. Shariat SF, Karakiewicz PI, Ashfaq R, Lerner SP, Palapattu GS, Cote RJ, Sagalowsky AI, Lotan Y. Multiple biomarkers improve prediction of bladder cancer recurrence and mortality in patients undergoing cystectomy. Cancer. 2008 Jan 15; 112(2):315-25.
  39. Bolenz C, Lotan Y. Molecular biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: challenges in clinical use. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2008 Dec;5(12):676-85.
  40. Anderson NL, Anderson NG. The human plasma proteome—history, character, and diagnostic prospects. Mol Cell Proteomics 2002;1: 845–67.
  41. Pearson H. Meet the human metabolome. Nature2007;446:8.
  42. Bujak R, Daghir E, Rybka J, Koslinski P, Markuszewski MJ. Metabolomics in urogenital cancer. Bioanalysis. 2011Apr;3(8):913-23.
  43. Zheng S, Xue T, Wang B, Guo H and Liu Q (2022), Application of network pharmacology in the study of the mechanism of action of traditional chinese medicine in the treatment of COVID-19. Front. Pharmacol. 13:926901. 
  44. Thomas JP, Modos D, Korcsmaros T and Brooks-Warburton J (2021) Network Biology Approaches to Achieve Precision Medicine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Front. Genet. 12:760501. 
  45. Hopkins AL. Network pharmacology. Nat Biotechnol. 2007 Oct;25(10):1110-1. doi: 10.1038/nbt1007-1110. PMID: 17921993. 
  46. Vidal M, Cusick ME, Barabási AL. Interactome networks and human disease. Cell. 2011 Mar 18;144(6):986-98. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.016. PMID: 21414488; PMCID: PMC3102045. 
  47. Ma C, Xu T, Sun X, Zhang S, Liu S, Fan S, Lei C, Tang F, Zhai C, Li C, Luo J, Wang Q, Wei W, Wang X, Cheng F. Network Pharmacology and Bioinformatics Approach Reveals the Therapeutic Mechanism of Action of Baicalein in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Feb 12;2019:7518374. 
  48. Tebani A, Afonso C, Bekri S. Advances in metabolome information retrieval: turning chemistry into biology. Part I: analytical chemistry of the metabolome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2018 May;41(3):379-391. doi: 10.1007/s10545-017-0074-y. Epub 2017 Aug 24.